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Mesopotamia: Las primeras leyes escritas en piedra

Las primeras leyes, el código de Hammurabi.

 La aparición de leyes escritas para regular la vida en sociedad fue un paso muy importante en el desarrollo humano. Aunque las primeras leyes eran extremadamente severas, marcaron el fin de la venganza privada entre las familias y el punto inicial a partir del cual se comenzó a impartir justicia desde el Estado.

Los primeros códigos de leyes que se conocen aparecieron en el imperio babilónico (Mesopotamia).

Uno de ellos es el Código de Hammurabi, que es una compilación de normas y costumbres de los antiguos sumerios. Una estela (losa de piedra) contenía el código y estaba colocada en un templo de Babilonia para que la consultaran todos aquellos que supieran leer. El Código de Hammurabi está basado en la ley del Talión, que suele resumirse en el principio “ojo por ojo, diente por diente”.

Algunos artículos del Código de Hammurabi:

 1- Si un hombre libre ha acusado y ha embrujado a otro y no puede justificarse, es pasible de muerte.

 2- Si un hombre libre robó el tesoro del dios o del palacio, recibirá la muerte y el que hubiere recibido de su mano el objeto robado, recibirá la muerte.

 3- Si una persona ha tomado una deuda y no puede pagarla, dará a su esposa, su hijo y su hija, y éstos trabajarán durante tres años para el acreedor y al cuarto año se los pondrá en libertad.

 4- Si una mujer no ha sido correcta y vigilante y hay un error en su conducta, si despilfarra el patrimonio, si ha descuidado la atención de su marido, será arrojada al agua.

 5- Si un hijo golpeó a su padre, se le cortarán las manos.

 6- Si un hombre libre abofeteó a otro hombre libre superior a él, recibirá en público 60 golpes de látigo de nervio de buey.

 7- Si el esclavo de un hombre libre abofeteó a un hijo de un hombre libre, se cortará su oreja.

Pilar Martín

Pilar Martín

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